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#1. The term “blue bloater” refers to a male client which of the following conditions?

  • Option C: Clients with chronic obstructive bronchitis appear bloated; they have large barrel chest and peripheral edema, cyanotic nail beds, and at times, circumoral cyanosis.
  • Option A: Clients with ARDS are acutely short of breath and frequently need intubation for mechanical ventilation and large amount of oxygen.
  • Option B: Clients with asthma don’t exhibit characteristics of chronic disease.
  • Option D: Clients with emphysema appear pink and cachectic.
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#2. The term “pink puffer” refers to the female client with which of the following conditions?

  • Option D: Because of the large amount of energy it takes to breathe, clients with emphysema are usually cachectic. They’re pink and usually breathe through pursed lips, hence the term “puffer.”
  • Option A: Clients with ARDS are usually acutely short of breath.
  • Option B: Clients with asthma don’t have any particular characteristics.
  • Option C: Clients with chronic obstructive bronchitis are bloated and cyanotic in appearance.
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#3. Patients arterial blood gas (ABG) results are as follows; pH 7.16; Paco2 80 mm Hg; Pao2 46 mm Hg; HCO3- 24 mEq/L; Sao2 81%. This ABG result represents which of the following conditions?

  • Option C: Because Paco2 is high at 80 mm Hg and the metabolic measure, HCO3- is normal, the client has respiratory acidosis.
  • Options B and D: The pH is less than 7.35, academic, which eliminates metabolic and respiratory alkalosis as possibilities.
  • Option A: If the HCO3- was below 22 mEq/L the client would have metabolic acidosis.
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#4. Which clinical manifestation is most common with hepatic encephalopathy ?

  • Option B: Changes in behavior and level of consciousness are the first signs of hepatic encephalopathy.
  • Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by liver failure and develops when the liver is unable to convert protein metabolic product ammonia to urea.
  • This results in accumulation of ammonia and other toxic in the blood that damages the cells.
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#5. Which of the following groups of symptoms indicates a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm?

  • Option B: Severe lower back pain indicates an aneurysm rupture, secondary to pressure being applied within the abdominal cavity.
  • When rupture occurs, the pain is constant because it can’t be alleviated until the aneurysm is repaired.
  • Blood pressure decreases due to the loss of blood.
  • After the aneurysm ruptures, the vasculature is interrupted and blood volume is lost, so blood pressure wouldn’t increase.
  • For the same reason, the RBC count is decreased – not increased. The WBC count increases as cell migrate to the site of injury.
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