Cardio vascular system 25/06/2020
Don't worry! "Failure is a Stepping Stone to Success"
#1. Which of the following blood vessel layers may be damaged in a client with an aneurysm?
- The factor common to all types of aneurysms is a damaged media.
- The media has more smooth muscle and less elastic fibers, so it’s more capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
- The interna and externa are generally no damaged in an aneurysm.
#2. With which of the following disorders is jugular vein distention most prominent?
- Elevated venous pressure, exhibited as jugular vein distention, indicates a failure of the heart to pump.
- Jugular vein distention isn’t a symptom of abdominal aortic aneurysm or pneumothorax.
- An MI, if severe enough, can progress to heart failure; however, in and of itself, an MI doesn’t cause jugular vein distention.
#3. Which of the following cardiac conditions does a fourth heart sound (S4) indicate?
- An S4 occurs as a result of increased resistance to ventricular filling adterl atrial contraction.
- This increased resistance is related to decrease compliance of the ventricle.
- A dilated aorta doesn’t cause an extra heart sound, though it does cause a murmur.
- Decreased myocardial contractility is heard as a third heart sound.
- An s4 isn’t heard in a normally functioning heart.
#4. What is the first intervention for a client experiencing myocardial infarction?
- Administering supplemental oxygen to the client is the first priority of care.
- The myocardium is deprived of oxygen during an infarction, so additional oxygen is administered to assist in oxygenation and prevent further damage.
- Morphine and sublingual nitroglycerin are also used to treat MI, but they’re more commonly administered after the oxygen.
- An ECG is the most common diagnostic tool used to evaluate MI.
#5. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system produces which of the following responses?
- Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes tachycardia and increased contractility.
- The other symptoms listed are related to the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for slowing the heart rate.
#6. Which of the following types of cardiomyopathy does not affect cardiac output?
- Cardiac output isn’t affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy because the size of the ventricle remains relatively unchanged.
- Dilated cardiomyopathy, and restrictive cardomyopathy all decrease cardiac output.
#7. Which of the following risk factors for coronary artery disease cannot be corrected?
- Because “heredity” refers to our genetic makeup, it can’t be changed.
- Cigarette smoking cessation is a lifestyle change that involves behavior modification.
- Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor that can be controlled with diet, exercise, and medication. Altering one’s diet, exercise, and medication can correct hypertension.
#8. Which of the following conditions is most closely associated with weight gain, nausea, and a decrease in urine output?
- Weight gain, nausea, and a decrease in urine output are secondary effects of right-sided heart failure.
- Cardiomyopathy is usually identified as a symptom of left-sided heart failure.
- Left-sided heart failure causes primarily pulmonary symptoms rather than systemic ones.
- Angina pectoris doesn’t cause weight gain, nausea, or a decrease in urine output.
#9. Which of the following sounds is distinctly heard on auscultation over the abdominal region of an abdominal aortic aneurysm client?
- A bruit, a vascular sound resembling heart murmur, suggests partial arterial occlusion.
- Crackles are indicative of fluid in the lungs.
- Dullness is heard over solid organs, such as the liver.
- Friction rubs indicate inflammation of the peritoneal surface.
#10. Which of the following symptoms might a client with right-sided heart failure exhibit?
- Inadequate deactivation of aldosterone by the liver after right-sided heart failure leads to fluid retention, which causes oliguria.
- Adequate urine output, polyuria, and polydipsia aren’t associated with right-sided heart failure.