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Cardio vascular system 25/06/2020

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#1. Which of the following blood vessel layers may be damaged in a client with an aneurysm?

  • The factor common to all types of aneurysms is a damaged media.
  • The media has more smooth muscle and less elastic fibers, so it’s more capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
  • The interna and externa are generally no damaged in an aneurysm.
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#2. With which of the following disorders is jugular vein distention most prominent?

  • Elevated venous pressure, exhibited as jugular vein distention, indicates a failure of the heart to pump.
  • Jugular vein distention isn’t a symptom of abdominal aortic aneurysm or pneumothorax.
  • An MI, if severe enough, can progress to heart failure; however, in and of itself, an MI doesn’t cause jugular vein distention.
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#3. Which of the following cardiac conditions does a fourth heart sound (S4) indicate?

  • An S4 occurs as a result of increased resistance to ventricular filling adterl atrial contraction.
  • This increased resistance is related to decrease compliance of the ventricle.
  • A dilated aorta doesn’t cause an extra heart sound, though it does cause a murmur.
  • Decreased myocardial contractility is heard as a third heart sound.
  • An s4 isn’t heard in a normally functioning heart.
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#4. What is the first intervention for a client experiencing myocardial infarction?

  • Administering supplemental oxygen to the client is the first priority of care.
  • The myocardium is deprived of oxygen during an infarction, so additional oxygen is administered to assist in oxygenation and prevent further damage.
  • Morphine and sublingual nitroglycerin are also used to treat MI, but they’re more commonly administered after the oxygen.
  • An ECG is the most common diagnostic tool used to evaluate MI.
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#5. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system produces which of the following responses?

  • Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes tachycardia and increased contractility.
  • The other symptoms listed are related to the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for slowing the heart rate.
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#6. Which of the following types of cardiomyopathy does not affect cardiac output?

  • Cardiac output isn’t affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy because the size of the ventricle remains relatively unchanged.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, and restrictive cardomyopathy all decrease cardiac output.
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#7. Which of the following risk factors for coronary artery disease cannot be corrected?

  • Because “heredity” refers to our genetic makeup, it can’t be changed.
  • Cigarette smoking cessation is a lifestyle change that involves behavior modification.
  • Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor that can be controlled with diet, exercise, and medication. Altering one’s diet, exercise, and medication can correct hypertension.
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#8. Which of the following conditions is most closely associated with weight gain, nausea, and a decrease in urine output?

  • Weight gain, nausea, and a decrease in urine output are secondary effects of right-sided heart failure.
  • Cardiomyopathy is usually identified as a symptom of left-sided heart failure.
  • Left-sided heart failure causes primarily pulmonary symptoms rather than systemic ones.
  • Angina pectoris doesn’t cause weight gain, nausea, or a decrease in urine output.
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#9. Which of the following sounds is distinctly heard on auscultation over the abdominal region of an abdominal aortic aneurysm client?

  • A bruit, a vascular sound resembling heart murmur, suggests partial arterial occlusion.
  • Crackles are indicative of fluid in the lungs.
  • Dullness is heard over solid organs, such as the liver.
  • Friction rubs indicate inflammation of the peritoneal surface.
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#10. Which of the following symptoms might a client with right-sided heart failure exhibit?

  • Inadequate deactivation of aldosterone by the liver after right-sided heart failure leads to fluid retention, which causes oliguria.
  • Adequate urine output, polyuria, and polydipsia aren’t associated with right-sided heart failure.
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